To measure their impact on people, place, and transport connectivity, some attributes of connected places have been audited (Table 6.3) . Embarcadero Boulevard in San Francisco (which becomes King Street) replaced the elevated Embarcadero Freeway after the 7.1-magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989.
Converting the freeway into a boulevard attracted private investment to the vicinity. Other benefits were jobs, residential growth, and increased land prices (Cervero et al., 2009). After the construction of the Embarcadero in the 1990s, there was a 75 percent increase in public transit commute trips and a 1.6 percent increase in walking to work trips measured in the influence zone of the streetcar-served Embarcadero Boulevard (Cervero et al., 2009, p. 40). The attributes audited are for King Street (Figure 6.9).
King Street provides a direct east-west connection between the Embarcadero and the I-280 on and off ramps at Fifth Street. Fourth Street Station is a stub-end terminal with six platforms located at King Street-Fourth Street. The street section explored is from the San Francisco Bay Bridge to Fourth Street (highlighted in red in Figure 6.9). Data from a study conducted by Kott (2011) is used to illustrate the impact of the five key connectivity dimensions on people, place, and transport connectivity (Table 6.3).
King Street has sidewalks, bicycle lanes, light rail lines, platforms, and strollers. The inner streets (i.e. Second, Third, and Fourth) have clear signage, such as of speed limits. Legibility, safety, pedestrian path connectivity, and permeability (Figure 6.13) have fed to the use of the street by people walking dogs, on bikes, sitting on the benches, and walking to shops and offices (Kott, 2011). 80 percent of respondents report the street environs as comfortable, safe, attractive, convenient, and active, as per the survey conducted by Kott (2011).
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Smaller lots within a traditional grid network have alowed connectivity, permeability, and better accessibility to transit (Kott, 2011). The connectivity index of 87 intersections per square kilometer exceeds the connectivity index of 78 intersectons per square kilometer for Nedlands (Figure 6.3). Hence, Kings Street precinct rates higher than Nedlands for the connectivity d^nson. One sees good movement of pedestrians and cyclists.
King Street has 29.4 percent buffer^ for pedestrians, with continuous bicycle lanes in each directon, sidewalk, and markings for on-street parking, resulting in an area that is safe for users. The pedestrian safety index is comparatively high despite high vehicle speeds and volume on the boulevard (the 85th percentile speedy is at 35 miles per hour; Kott, 2011).
A ow solid:void rato, with 732.1 linear street front windows per mile and 128.6 street front doors per mile, attracts people and increases activity and interaction on the streets, making the streets safe.
Although the social width can be improved across the street, the street edges are well activated: 1,132 feet per mile and 624 feet per mile, respectively, are occupied by restaurant and retail use at the street fagade. This provides active edge, character, and eyes on the street (Kott, 2011).
The building height to street:width ratio along King Street changes as per the change in adjacent uses. This adds variety to the street character (Figure 6.15).
As one respondent noted, ‘The scale of buildings seems appropriate. The street is interesting and lively’ (Kott, 2011, p. 289).