Rio de Janeiro Map

Grottos

There are also a number of rock assemblages in cemeteries known as grottos. These monuments are miniature cave-like chapels containing small altars and religious statuary. Grottos are often seen in large Catholic cemeteries. Most of them pay homage to the most famous grotto in the world, the Grotto of Lourdes in France.

Grotto-like Gamichon tomb, Pere-Lachaise

Castrum Doloris

A castrum doloris (Latin for castle of grief) is an elaborate funerary structure that shelters a catafalque or sarcophagus. There are often effigies or gisants of the deceased above the sarcophagus and corresponding statues on top of the tomb. Frequently there are allegorical statues around the structure representing various virtues. Castrum doloris tombs are almost always situated indoors and reserved for royalty.

A 1606 map of Virginia, as described by Captain John Smith, shows the Chesapeake Bay, Potomac River, and other familiar geographic features. Rio de Janeiro Map A vignette of the native leader Powhatan appears at the upper left. (Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-116706) One important aspect of the charter provided that those who ventured to settle in the colony remained Englishmen. As such, they retained all the attendant rights and privileges, even though they were no longer living on British soil. Religion In addition to being given political power, the London Company was also assigned the job of spreading Protestantism. The colonizers were to propagate the Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God, in order to bring the infidels and savages, in those parts, to human civility. Although they were not as fervent in this part of their mission as the Puritans in their quest for religious freedom, the religious intent of the Virginia founders was among their primary motivations. Church doctrine served as the foundation for law, and the church’s creed became the measure of a godly man.

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