Baghdad Map Tourist Attractions and Country Region
Some territorial changes like the annexation of E Illyricum to the possessions of the Eastern empire, the establishment of Eastern power in S Italy and Sicily, until then under the ecclesiastical supremacy of Rome, at the time of Justinian I worsened relations. Mutually estranged, only rarely in contact and knowing each other less and less, the two parts of what was the Roman Empire took different paths of political and cultural development. Constantinople’s tendency to rivalry with Rome was manifested even in the 4th c. by the systematic accumulation in churches of martyrs’ relics and sacred objects, in the presumption that this would give the new political and ecclesiastical see the charis, or divine grace, that was lacking in its origin. Thus began the translation to Constantinople of relics, authentic and false, a practice begun by Constantine and followed by his successors. A long and documented list of churches and relics was published by P.R. Janin 1969; we mention Constantine’s Church of the Holy Apostles, where precious relics were collected; the Church of the Non-Arian Goths 2nd half of 4th c.; the Anastasis, where Gregory of Nazianzus officiated in the last quarter of the 4th c.; St. Mary of the Blachernae, famous throughout the Middle Ages, built by the empress Pulcheria ca. 450453; two churches dedicated in the 5th c. to St. Irene. The great monasteries included St. Bethlehem, work of the empress Helena; the monastery of the Akoimetoi Acoemetae, ca.
History for Baghdad Map Tourist Attractions
Massachusetts Religion The Puritans worked diligently to build a Christian colony, and there was little room for dissent within the community. In 1635, the Puritans faced a conflict with Roger Williams, the minister at Salem. Williams called for absolute separation of church and state, and he also believed that the Puritans should separate from the Anglican Church. Williams was brought before the General Court and subsequently banished from the colony. Other dissenters faced similar punishments. In 1636, Anne Hutchinson began holding prayer meetings in her home and claimed that she heard directly from God. John Wheelwright, a Boston minister who supported Hutchinson, publicly challenged the religious and political leadership of the colony. Wheelwright and Hutchinson were both banished in 1637.
Despite the emphasis on religion during its formative years, devotion to the church waned as the colony developed. Baghdad Map Tourist AttractionsThe second and third generations of Puritan settlers joined the church in far fewer numbers than had their ancestors. In 1662, several ministers met to discuss the declining church membership. In an effort to bolster shrinking congregations, they voted to extend the Halfway Covenant to churches. This compromise allowed the children of church members to become members in their own right, without presenting evidence of their conversion to the congregation for approval. It was left up to the local churches to decide whether or not they would accept this policy. In this, as in their ability to elect their own clergy and manage their own affairs, church members exercised autonomy. The accusations of witchcraft at Salem in 1692 are perhaps the best-known religious episode in the colony’s history. Samuel Parris, the local minister, was at the center of the fray. His daughter and her friends claimed that they had been attacked by witches and began naming their tormenters. In the ensuing furor, hundreds of people in Salem and nearby towns were accused of being witches. The hysteria prompted Governor Phips to appoint a special court to try the accused. Twenty villagers were executed, having been convicted of practicing witchcraft. Accusations of witchcraft continued until the General Court disbanded the special court later that year, but the episode left its mark on the colony.
In the wake of the Salem witch trials, and with increasing numbers of non-Puritans and non-church members in the colony, secularism increased through the late seventeenth century. This decline in the importance of religious faith was challenged by a revival movement that began in 1734. Known as the Great Awakening, this increased religious fervor spread from Massachusetts throughout much of colonial North America. Sparked by the preaching of Jonathan Edwards, the revival was fueled by the young English preacher George Whitefield. The revival meetings that characterized the Great Awakening were marked by boisterous, emotional sermons that elicited equally passionate responses from the congregation. This ardor in worship and repentance contrasted with the traditionally dignified order of services in the Puritan churches. Reactions to the revivals resulted in a split of many congregations. Those who accepted the new religious fervor came to be known as New Lights, while the traditionalists were referred to as Old Lights. This breach of church congregations resulted in plural churches in many Massachusetts towns.