TIME DIFFERENCES. All of Europe falls within three hours of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). For more info, consult the time zone chart on the inside back cover. GMT is five hours ahead of New York time, eight hours ahead of Vancouver and San Francisco time, two hours behind Johannesburg time, 10 hours behind Sydney time, and 12 hours behind Auckland time. Some countries ignore daylight savings time; fall and spring switchover times vary.
PLACING INTERNATIONAL CALLS. To call Europe from home or to call home from Europe, dial:
1. The international dialing prefix. To dial out of Australia, dial 0011; Canada or the US, Oil; the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, or the UK, 00; South Africa, 09. See the inside back cover for a full list of dialing prefixes.
2. The country code of the country you want to call. To call Australia, dial 61; Canada or the US, 1; the Republic of Ireland, 353: New Zealand, 64: South Africa, 27; the UK, 44. See the back cover for a full list of country codes.
3.The city/area code. Let’s Go lists the city/area codes for cities and towns opposite the city or town name within each country’s chapter, next to a s. If the first digit is a zero (e.g. 020 for London), omit the zero when calling from abroad (e.g. dial 20 from Canada to reach London).
4. The local number.
Margaret Sankey See also: Grenville, George; Politics and Government (Chronology); Politics and Government (Essay); Revolutionary War. Best europe countries to visit Bibliography Bullion, John. A Great and Necessary Measure: George Grenville and the Genesis of the Stamp Act. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1982. Morgan, Edmund, and Helen Morgan. The Stamp Act Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1953. Thomas, Peter David. British Politics and the Stamp Act Crisis. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1975. Stuyvesant, Peter (c. 16101672) Peter Stuyvesant ruled the Dutch colony of New Netherland as director-general or governor from 1647 until 1664, when England seized the colony and renamed it New York. Born about 1610, Stuyvesant was intensely loyal to the Dutch West India Company, which employed him, and he was a devout member of the Dutch Reformed Church. He directed the company’s holdings on Cura§ao from 1638 until 1646.
In 1644, a cannonball crushed his right leg during an assault on the Spanish colony of St. Martin. Enduring intense pain, Stuyvesant continued the assault for twenty-eight days but ultimately withdrew due to a lack of support from his men. Surgeons amputated the leg, and Stuyvesant wore a wooden leg thereafter. Arrival in New Amsterdam In 1647, Stuyvesant arrived in New Amsterdam as the West India Company’s director-general of New Netherland. He faced a very diverse population in the colony, as it had drawn settlers from different regions of Europe France, Belgium, Germany, and Scandinavia.
Further, the company had shipped African slaves to the region since 1626; some of these Africans had gained their independence, giving New Netherland a sizable free black population. Several Native Country groups also resided along the Hudson River, notably the Mohawk and several Algonquin tribes. Conflict dominated Stuyvesant’s tenure in New Netherland. His authoritarian ways upset many, but he did effect significant changes in the colony. The colonists disagreed with the taxes he imposed and wanted greater political participation. Company officers in Holland disagreed with his intolerant religious views. Rensselaerswyck, a prosperous community on the upper Hudson, resented Stuyvesant’s attempts to increase the company’s control of that region’s trade in beaver fur.