From Dynasty to Republic
The Ming dynasty brought a return to Chinese rule, during which arts and literature flourished. China also experienced growth in agriculture and trade. One important new farming practice was crop rotation, which kept fields continuously cultivated while maintaining the soil’s fertility. The production of porcelain goods increased, especially the white porcelain with blue painting that is identified with the dynasty. Trade with foreign countries expanded.
In 1644, the Manchu attacked the Ming capital and began the Qing
Agriculture is the foundation of the empire. As for gold, pearls, and jade, they cannot be eaten in time of hunger, and cannot he worn in time of cold.
Between the 7th and 14th centuries, China had the world’s most advanced civilization. Important inventions, including paper, gunpowder, porcelain, silk, and the compass, originated in China and were later introduced to other parts of the world dynasty, the last Chinese dynasty ruled by an emperor. The Manchu were people who lived for many centuries mainly in a region of China historically known as Manchuria (now the Northeast). The Manchu ruled for more than 250 years. During the Qing dynasty, the territory of the empire grew to three times its size during the Ming dynasty.
Most slaves practiced a folk religion centered on the belief that the real world and the spirit world were one and the same. Dalian Map It was thought that the dead continued to interact with the living; the black Christian practice of catching the Holy Ghost originated from this belief. Many slaves also believed that illness and misfortune were caused by an affront to the gods, a failure to properly honor one’s ancestors, or the harmful intervention of a conjurer: one who had been blessed at birth with the ability to affect the natural world through the spirits. Conjurers became prominent members of the slave community, called on to heal illness, win the affections of a desired mate, provide spiritual assistance for a planned escape from slavery, and perform a number of other services. They were psychiatrists, doctors, spiritual leaders, and magicians for their communities, even to those who professed Christianity. In a confusing world, where punishment and mortality often seemed arbitrary, the notion that unseen forces could be used for both good and evil offered slaves a feeling of comfort and control.