Map Of Graz Austria

The First Coalition: 1792-1797 (2 minutes)

Austria enjoyed some brief successes at the beginning of the war when the French armies were disorganized. In 1792 the French invaded and occupied the Austrian Netherlands and while Austria was defending her territory her ally Prussia betrayed Austria by taking the opportunity to partition Poland for a second time excluding Austria entirely. With the Low Countries occupied and the French Revolution gaining momentum Britain, the Dutch Republic and Spain all entered the war and the Austrian Netherlands were recovered.

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However, Austrian troops were driven out of the Netherlands a second time, this time for good. Meanwhile, a third partition of Poland occurred in 1795, put an end to the nation, this time Austria was able to secure some Polish territory. The war in the west left many disappointed allies who made peace leaving Austria, Britain and Piedmont-Sardinia as remaining allies. Austrian troops led by the Archduke Charles, the Emperor’s brother, drove the French back in Germany. However, the French Army.

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Of Italy led by the young Corsican General Napoleon forced Piedmont out of the war and drove Austrian troops out of Lombardy and Mantura. Napoleon then moved toward Vienna forcing Austria to sue for peace.

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The Treaty of Campo Formio ended the war – Austria renounced its claims to the Netherland and Lombardy (today part of Italy), in exchange for a part of the Republic of Venice which was partitioned with France. France received the Left Bank of the Rhine and the German Princes of that region were compensated with ecclesiastical lands on the opposite side of the Rhine.

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The Second Coalition: 1799-1800 (1 minute)

Austria who was unhappy with the reorganization of Germany jointed Russia, Britain and Naples to again oppose France. Austro-Russian forces drove France from Italy. Then after the defeat of Zurich which the Russian blamed on Austria the Russians withdrew from the war. Napoleon, now First Consul, forced the Austrians to withdrawal from Italy and defeated them in Germany bring an end to the war. The major result of the war was to reorganize the Holy Roman Empire.

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The Empire of Austria (1 minute)

When Napoleon assumed the title of Emperor of the French in 1804 Francis II Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806) elevated Austria to an Empire taking the title Emperor of Austria as Francis I (1804-1835). By forming his own empire Francis was in effect admitting defeat. In 1806 after the crushing defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz in the Third Coalition Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor, Francis the last in a long line of Holy Roman Emperors which began with Charlemagne.

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