The status of Pacific artists in Australia and internationally is not surprising. Only in recent times has the Pacific Ocean been acknowledged as a globally-significant indicator of future climate, health and food security (Hales et al. 1999). Notwithstanding scientific discoveries, the default image of Pacific Island countries, beyond their attraction as tourist destinations, remains principally negative. Typically, the region is represented as a global backwash where economic and climatic catastrophes are evidenced by rising sea levels, nuclear testing, violence, poverty and corrupt governmentality.
If Oceania is characterized as an under-developed victim of economic globalization, subject to escalating emigration, there is good reason for attracting the concern of many artists of Pacific heritage residing in foreign metropoles and/or throughout smaller islands. With embedded geo-social histories different from northern hemisphere experience, urban-based artists of Pacific ancestry can offer broader interpretations of what urbanization, globalization, nomadism and flow’ may signify – and how such significations may be evidenced in the varied characters of Pacific cities, their festivals and their art institutions, from Apia to Auckland and Cairns to Port Vila. Thus, within the all-encompassing might of turbo capitalism’ (Flanagan 2011), geography and place can still matter.
Although they were concerned and disappointed, the colonists set about repairing the cottages and fort left behind by the previous expedition. They had brought back Manteo, who offered advice and then returned to his native settlement of Croatoan, near Cape Hatteras, not far away. Soon after their arrival at Roanoke, Elinor Dare, White’s daughter and wife of his fellow settler Ananias Dare, gave birth to the first English person born in Country a baby girl they named Virginia Dare. After unloading their supplies, the colonists decided that White should return to England to make sure that more supplies would be sent as soon as possible. White reluctantly agreed. Before leaving, White and the colonists determined that in his absence, the main body of the colonists would try to establish a settlement 50 miles inland (toward the Chesapeake area), while a small contingent would remain in Roanoke to meet White on his return. White left in late August and arrived in England on November 8, 1587. He immediately met with Raleigh and asked that a relief force be organized. Raleigh initially assured him that supplies would be sent with all due speed.