South Dakota Map

Crazy Horse Memorial- The face of Crazy Horse carved into South Dakota’s Black Hills is the world’s largest mountain carving. Nearby, the Indian Museum of North America displays art and artifacts representing Native American history and culture.

A similar study in 2008 compared the impact of traffic on a neighborhood located in north Bristol, UK (Hart, 2008). A light-traffic street (140 vehicles per day) had almost three times the number of gathering spots, including cross-street locations, compared with medium-traffic (8,420 vehicles per day) or heavy-traffic (21,130 vehicles per day) streets. Residents on heavy-traffic streets had fewer friends and acquaintances on the same street than residents on light-traffic streets (Hart, 2008). This becomes especially important, since a low crime rate in a neighborhood is correlated to how many neighbors know each other well. Strong social networks benefit people directly by helping them feel that they are safe, that their homes are protected, and that they are looked after. The social capital of the community aids in generating a sense of community well-being (Putnam, 2001).

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In their studies of great streets and boulevards around the world, Jacobs et al. (2002) found that the quality of the ‘pedestrian realm’ within road space plays an important part in the livability and liveliness of the streets (Figures 2.4 and 2.5). The best streets and boulevards establish a pedestrian realm that extends beyond the sidewalks to include tree-lined median and access roads. International Boulevard in Fruitvale, California, is a prime example. By extending the pedestrian realm, a ‘slow space’ has been created where the vehicle speed automatically reduces due to adjacent pedestrian activities. This helps in making the boundaries between the traffic zone and pedestrian pathways less distinct (Figure 2.5).

The pedestrian realm around spaces oriented to transport functions, such as transit stations and bus stops, can be transformed through place making into community hubs that foster diverse activities. The potential uses for such areas can range from eating places and performance venues to markets and art galleries, especially if there is an adjacent plaza or public space. These activities thrive by attracting new customers from the passing commuter traffic. The commercial value of these neighborhoods is enhanced as a result (Nelson, 2015).

This travel destinations has outlined a case for place connectivity to foster better communities. Health, safety, prosperity, identity, and equity are key measures of stronger, sustainable communities. Connected places can stimulate social interaction and inclusion through a combination of urban design and policy interventions.

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