The city’s name goes back to the Romans (‘Colonia’, 50 AD). Charlemagne founded the archbishopric of Cologne in 785. The Archbishop of Cologne later became Chancellor for Italy (11th century) and Elector (14th century). From the 12th to the 15th centuries Cologne was the most populous and one of the richest cities in the German speaking world. In 1794 it was occupied by French troops and in 1815 it became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia.