A force of civilians trained as soldiers but not part of Baghdad Metro Map the regular army. Millennialism. A belief in some Christian denominations, literature, and folk religion Baghdad Metro Map that, at some point in the future, there will be a golden age of peace and prosperity, when Christ will reign. This is believed by some to be the final age before the end of the world. Millwright. A craftsman who designs, builds, repairs, or maintains mills or mill machinery.
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This chapter examines two anti-memorial projects, one concerning the fate of illegal refugees travelling to Australia, The Siev X Memorial Project (Canberra, 2007) and the other speculative design work, Inundating The Border: Migratory Spaces Within The Seam, from a university postgraduate studio considering the deaths of undocumented workers crossing into the United States (El Paso-Juarez 2005). Each project grapples with complexities of forced migration, definitions of place and meaning in global cities, and how the urban environment might begin to accommodate public memorials that acknowledge contemporary debates. These projects are by their nature global, but have very specific local, political implications. Both projects reject conventional notions of memorials in the public realm as icons or celebrations of civic and national identity and question our complacency with regards to the politics and policing of international borders. Further, the project work intervenes politically in public space as deliberate acts of activism and questions the role of design as a physical agent of social change. They call into question the very role of civic space and position it perhaps more appropriately as democratic space. While Hajer’s and Reijndorp’s theoretical definitions of public realm as well as Chantal Mouffe’s philosophical writing about democratic space looms large,1 I draw here mainly from geographer Don Mitchell and landscape architect Beth Diamond for the definition of democratic space. Mitchell writes: What makes a space public is not its preordained publicness. Rather, it is when to fulfill a pressing need, some group or another takes space and through its action and makes it public’ (Mitchell 2003: 35). Further, Diamond writes:
Democracy is about constant negotiation with multiple and conflicting groups and individuals working to create a contingent co-existence, which, by its very nature, will never be stable. Public space, in this context, is not the territory of shared values and beliefs, but the arena where differences and conflict can be revealed.