Ordination. Consecration to the ministry, usually through a formal Nigeria Map religious ceremony. Orrery. A mechanical model of the solar system, which illustrates the relative positions Nigeria Map and motions of bodies in the solar system by rotation and revolution of balls moved by an arrangement of gears and wheels. P Palatinate. A territory in what is now southwestern Germany, ruled by the counts palatine.
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The three models of collaboration reflect alternative relations between the First and Third World, city and village. According to the developmental model, the outsourcing of craft production can be seen as an extension of labour arbitrage. It takes advantage of global inequality to divide labour so that the drudgery of handmade tasks can be performed in poorer countries of the global South. The freedom of creative expression by the designer of the global North is purchased with wages for workers in the global South. While this does little to question the global divide, it can be seen to provide some tangible material benefits for the workers involved. By contrast, the romantic model is based primarily on the interests of village artisans from the global South, whose lifestyle reflects a valued alternative to the consumerism associated with modernity. Though contesting the hierarchy of global North and South, this can still be seen as serving the interests of western consumers, eliding potential artisan aspirations for the very consumerism against which they are defined. Finally, the dialogical model aims to represent a reciprocal relationship where there is creative agency on both sides. The example of Punkasila creates a shared identity involving carnivalesque satire that ridicules conventional authority. There is potential for other forms of solidarity, such as protection of the environment. Such a model is more likely to succeed in an urban setting where there is literacy and familiarity with cultural exchange.
While the dialogical model formally involves a more equal relationship, it is possible to see contexts where the developmental and romantic are more appropriate. The reduction of participation to a conventional labour contract in the developmental model can preserve a buffer between local culture of the workers and a foreign consumer market. Where communities seek to preserve their traditions in a globalized context, the romantic model can serve to replace a lost local market. What potentially counteracts the exploitative nature of labour arbitrage in craft outsourcing is a critical evaluation of its benefits and losses on both sides. A Code of Practice that involved protocols for the development of such partnerships would help ensure that such critical evaluation was part of the collaborative process.
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