PARLIAMENT AND THE CROWN OF BRITAIN
James II took the throne in 1685, but lost it three years later to his son-in-law, Dutch Protestant William of Orange. After James fled to France, William and his wife Mary wrote the Bill of Rights to ensure the Protestantism of future kings. The ascension of William and Mary marked the end of a century of upheaval and the debut of a more liberal age in which Britain rose to economic and political predominance. By the end of the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), Britain controlled Canada and the 13 colonies to the south, as well as much of the Caribbean. Meanwhile, Parliament prospered thanks to the ineffectual leadership of the Hanoverian kings, Georges I, II, and III, and the office of Prime Minister soon eclipsed the monarchy as the seat of power.