The only real drawback of this method is that it takes time to boil enough for a day’s supply, and you have to wait till it cools down before drinking. Boiling also leaves the water with a slightly flat taste. All water used for cooking can conveniently be boiled, of course, in the process of preparing a meal.
Portable and lightweight water filters have come on the market during the past decade, and for many campers a water filter has now become a standard item of equipment. With just a bit of exertion (most of them involve using a hand pump) you can purify enough water to meet daily drinking needs in a few minutes or less. An advantage of using a filter is that you can drink the water immediately after purifying, it stays cold, and the taste isn’t affected. See Chapter 3 for more about water filters.
One other common method of purifying water exists: adding iodine or other chemical tablets to the water. This is the least desirable choice. With tablets you have to wait a while before drinking, they leave an unpleasant taste, may be unhealthy to ingest, and, most important, don’t always work adequately (there are cases, one sustained by the author many years ago, where parasites have been contracted even after use of the tablets).
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In 1758, a huge British fleet captured the fortress at Louisbourg, which protected the mouth of the St. Lawrence. In 1759, General James Wolfe faced Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, a French general, on the Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec. Washington Map Tourist Attractions After a brief battle, the French broke ranks and retreated to Quebec. Both commanders died in the battle, and Quebec fell shortly thereafter. In 1760, Montreal suffered a similar fate. The French and Indian War resulted in France’s final abandonment of the St. Lawrence River Valley. In the aftermath of the war, the British were particularly cruel to the inhabitants of Acadia, forcing their evacuation. When Britain’s other mainland colonies broke away in 1776, Canada remained part of the British Empire. Matthew Jennings See also: Canada; Cartier, Jacques; Exploration; French; French Colonies on Mainland North Country (Chronology); Furs; Great Lakes; Montreal; Quebec City; Transportation, Water. Bibliography Eccles, W. J. France in Country. Rev. ed. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1990. Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early Country. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. Taylor, Alan. Country Colonies. New York: Viking, 2001. St. Louis Named in honor of King Louis IX, St. Louis was first established as a fur trading post by Pierre Laclede, a member of Mexent & Laclede Fur Company, and Auguste Chouteau, his 13-year-old associate, in 1764. The site they selected was ideal: 18 miles south of the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. It had both river access and a bluff to protect it from the river’s flooding. While Laclede returned to New Orleans, Auguste began construction of the small village. A year later, Laclede returned to St. Louis with Auguste’s mother, Marie Chouteau, and her three children. The primitive settlement consisted of little more than two granaries, a bakery, a maple sugar works, and a church. But St. Louis grew quickly, as its location served to make it the gateway city for the ever-increasing north-south commerce that traveled the Mississippi River.