In 1231, Abbot Odo Clement began adapting Saint-Denis into a royal necropolis and by 1264 the bones of 16 kings and queens were moved in. From its inception as a necropolis, all but three of the monarchs of France and a variety of family members were entombed in Saint-Denis. During the French Revolution most of the tombs were broken into and the bones thrown into a pit. The tombs themselves also suffered heavy damage, but most were able to be restored. Archaeologist Alexandre Lenoir, who was instrumental in transferring the relics of Heloi’se and Abelard to Pere-Lachaise in exchange for the bones of Louise de Lorraine, is widely credited with saving the tombs in Saint-
Saint-Denis houses a number of cadaver tombs, where the deceased are depicted in their death throes or shortly after death. There are also a number of castrum doloris tombs (literally castle of grief) where the deceased is depicted below in death but above after they have risen to the heavens. The tomb of Louis XII and Anne de Bretagne is probably the best example of the style.
But, of all the monuments, Marie-Antoinette’s and, to a lesser extent, her husband’s, Louis XVI, get the most attention.
The College of William and Mary is founded. Minneapolis Map Dinah Nuthead, upon the death of her husband, William, assumes control of the printing press he had established in St. Mary’s, Maryland, ten years earlier. She becomes North Country’s first female printer. (Although Elizabeth Glover was the first woman to establish a printing press in North Country, her son and her late husband’s apprentice handled the press’s day-to-day operation. Dinah Nuthead was the first woman in North Country who actually set the type and ran the press herself.) Yale University is founded as the Collegiate School of Connecticut.