South Africa Map

Maximilien-Sebastien Foy in South Africa

Maximilien-Sebastien Foy had a long career in the military but also distinguished himself as a writer and statesman. At age 17, he was already a sub-lieutenant of artillery and the following year was given his own company. By 1811, at age 36, he was a general. Foy seemed to have a propensity to become a target and was wounded at least 15 times. On February 27, 1814, during the Battle of Orthez, in Southern France near the Spanish border, he was actually left for dead on the field. His wound at Waterloo on June 18, 1815 finally terminated his military service. Turning to public service, in 1819 he was elected as a member of the Chamber of Deputies. During that time he also wrote a history of the Peninsular War. His lofty classical revival canopy tomb shelters a statue by David d’Angers and sports bas-relief panels, some of which have been covered in glass to prevent further weathering. Sculptor David d’Angers and writer Victor Hugo are depicted on one of the panels. Hugo is carrying Foy’s coffin

The customary practice of mercantilism compounded the situation. South Africa MapThe Swedes generally requested currency in exchange for their naval stores, which put those who traded with them in opposition to the mercantile system, since they needed to sustain and expand their currency supplies in order to maintain a strong nation. Therefore, a desire to procure reliable and inexpensive resources for the production of naval stores outside of Europe was among the major reasons that England (as well as other European powers, for that matter) became interested in colonizing North Country. South Africa Map With abundant supplies and uncertain ownership claims, North Country offered numerous opportunities for European nations to avoid dependence on the Swedish naval stores monopoly. Not surprisingly, then, these materials were among the first marketable commodities that the colonists sent back to Europe.

Unlike other industrial activities, the production of naval stores required little more than the ownership of land possessing an abundance of resources and a labor force to procure the materials. Colonial Country had an abundant supply of natural resources, but labor was always in short supply. While every European nation involved in the settlement of Country promoted the production of naval stores, successful production became widespread only in the English colonies. The main reason for this was the commitment of the British government, through its Board of Trade, to promote this commerce. On numerous occasions during the colonial era, the Board of Trade sent orders and directives to the colonial governors to build naval stores production facilities and to limit lumbering activities that were not in support of industries producing naval stores. Since the many colonial governments could not build such facilities and the policing of lumbering was nearly impossible, the Board of Trade pushed legislation in Parliament and the colonial assemblies that allowed for the issuance of bounties and other subsidies to promote construction and operation by private interests.

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