Constantine carried out important reforms in the various sectors of state administration. He multiplied palace officials, creating a bureaucratic centralization in line with the needs of an absolute government. He completed the separation, begun by Diocletian, of civilian and military commands. He increased the authority of the council of the princeps consistorium, formalizing its functions. He reformed the army, creating two supreme commanders for infantry and cavalry, directly responsible to the emperor, and increasing the importance of mobile over frontier troops. He introduced a new strong currency, the gold solidus, in an attempt to halt inflation. And finally, he issued the first regulations aimed at preventing coloni and members of corporations from changing their work and curiales from escaping the economic burdens of their status. But Constantine’s most consequential activities were in the political-religious sphere; his conversion, whatever complex motivations underlay it, was translated into a series of measures directly bound up with the Christianization of the empire, by creating structures capable of preserving the unity of the Christian church as essential to the unity of the state, legitimizing the monarchical form of the state by the monotheistic religious principle of its heavenly archetype. In this direction tended the provisions in favor of the clergy, concession of ecclesiastical immunities, institution of episcopal tribunals for lay cases Episcopalis Audientia, recognition of the legal validity of manumissio in ecclesia,
History for Thailand Subway Map
1649 Both William Stone and William Berkeley run afoul of Parliament Thailand Subway Map when they declare Charles II the legal sovereign following the execution of Charles I. The first Act Thailand Subway Map Concerning Religion guarantees toleration to all sects of Christianity within the boundaries of Maryland. 1650 The Assembly divides into two distinct houses when the elected representatives get their own meeting chamber and speaker. 1654 A group of ten Puritan commissioners convenes at Patuxent and begins to govern Maryland as a Puritan commonwealth, outlawing Catholic religious practices, as well as drunkenness, swearing, and fornication. Interestingly, back in England, Cromwell sides with Lord Baltimore and reprimands the Puritan Commission.